“Aray ko, Galing ko.” This was a famous line taken from Many Pacquiao’s hit television commercial Alaxan FR. This line exemplifies how men should act in the society. On the other hand, these commercials would also empower the roles of men in the society. According to the resident legal counselor of the UPLB Gender Center, Atty. Eric Peralta, mainstream media plays a huge role in shaping the views in the society. The use of internet became a widely concern because Filipinos became one of the top consumer of the internet. This establishes the reasons why we often judge others.
History was also seen as one of the main factors why we often see women as weak and men as strong. Until today, we did not give our best shot in order to bring the equal distribution of power into nation. The past can also amplify what people should do and should not do. The role of man in the society does not change at all.
There were no direct laws related to gender stereotyping although the Labor Code indirectly states that there will be no room for discrimination whether it is inside or outside of the working area.
Women of Bay, Laguna actively participates in the UPLB Gender Center’s seminar for anti-VAW
The UPLB Gender Center conducted a seminar targeting the barangays of Bay, Laguna. Bay became the organization’s main concern because they wanted to target the nearest places in Los Baños. The seminar was good for 200 participants but it turns out to be a 500 audience. This scenario encouraged the UPLB Gender Center to conduct again a free seminar on violence against women.
Women were the intended audience of the seminar, this was also made clear that majority of victims of violence were women. It shows in the program that the participants have little or no knowledge about violence against women. The event was also composed of the mothers from 4Ps who were economically dependent to their husbands. Clearly, the economic dependency can also add to the characteristics of men that they should provide the needs of their family.
The UP Open University Center for Gender Studies has organized a seminar for empowering men which is called MOVE or Men Opposing Violence everywhere. Apparently, the event was cancelled due to the conflicting schedule of their partnered organization which is the GAD Office of the Los Baños. But this coming April, the GAD Office will going to partner with the UPLB Gender Center for an another anti-VAW seminar.
Those characteristics may entitle men as the dominator that demands that their decisions should be upheld. Being a dominator also means that they have the control over others, particularly women and they can use violence to maintain their position.
Process wherein it focuses in the power of men in the society.
The concept of hegemonic masculinity is defined as the patterns of practice of how men should look like in the society. According to college students interviewed, men are usually portrayed manly if they hold back their own feelings and they don’t cry because they are “men”. Men are suspected as “bakla”or “silahis” when they manifest the traits that they became friendly to many girls, they don’t have a girlfriend, and they are unmarried at a certain age.
The graph that portrays the gender stereotyping among men
“Magpakalalaki ka” was one of the common impression of Filipinos about men is that when they act like they are weak or “para kang babae” if they act traits of a woman. The descriptions about men were always the opposite to women traits. The physical and affective characteristics also affect the image of a man. For example, men should look chivalrous, firm in his own decisions or they should never look like that they wanted to cry.
There are four types of masculinities: dominant, complicit, subordinate, and marginalized. The dominant type of masculinity emphasizes the aggressiveness and being successful of men. This type was also categorized as “real men”. The complicit type lies between dominant and subordinate masculinities. The complicit one thinks that he is masculine but cannot be part of the dominant sphere. The subordinate type is often called the category of “lampa” which includes the trait of men that shows their affection and vulnerability to others. The last type of masculinity is the marginalized which categorized men by their race, religion, ethnicity, even disability. This types gives characterization among men. Moreover, these masculinities would also look like the hierarchy of being a man.
There is also called Male Strength Hypothesis that states that men are physically stronger than women. They have stronger muscles or physique that would the look that they are superior to women. In addition to this, there is also a concept of gaze which covers the scopophilia (the pleasure of looking) in movies. The gaze concept states of how we see men and women in movies. It also states that men see women as pleasuring objects in order to feel enjoyment.
Although the given information looks like we are giving bad impression about men, but this is what we need to change. We need to see the other side of men in order to accept them. We always thought that only females experience violence, but males also experience other type of violence. They were also physically abused—by their classmates, friends, and their own family. We also judge men just like we judge women. If a man and women were caught in a scandal, we always think that boys should be responsible in those acts. But definitely, both of them should be responsible because they are both caught in the act. We should share responsibilities if we believe that men and women are equal in any kinds of views, religion, or opinion.
“To be affirming and optimistic about men, to believe that men can change, and to support every man’s effort at positive change.” said by M.Flood, author of Men’s Collective Struggles for Gender Justice from European Pro-Feminist Men’s Network. We need different masculinities and that should simply start in childhood education about the gender roles. We should stop irresponsibility and empower equality.
For more details about the masculinities of men here are some links that you may want to view:
- Political Violence among men- http://politicalviolenceataglance.org/2013/07/11/male-victimhood-in-armed-conflict/
- Masculinities within selected research on men’s health http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/18902138.2015.106761
- Gender roles in media- http://www.huffingtonpost.com/allison-lantagne/gender-roles-media_b_5326199.html
- Scopophilia – http://faculty.cua.edu/johnsong/hitchcock/pages/scopophilia/scopophilia.html
- Hegemonic Masculinities – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OYboMmQS0tU&feature=youtu.be
Disclaimer: Photos are not mine. They were from the facebook page of UPLB Gender Center and Google Images.